Ichneumon Sub-families

This page describes the different sub-families of the Ichneumonidae. Their ecology and life histories are summarised, with references to more detailed articles or books. Yorkshire species from each group can be found in the Yorkshire checklist. An asterix indicates that a foreign-language key has been translated into English.

One method by which the caterpillars of moths and sawflies which are the hosts of these insects attempt to prevent parasitism is for them to hide under leaves during the day and emerge to feed at night. A number of ichneumonoids, spread through several subfamilies of both ichneumons and braconids, exploit this resource by hunting at night. Most ichneumonoids are blackish, which makes them less obvious to predators, but colour is not important in the dark and many of these nocturnal ones have lost the melanin that provides the dark colour, so they are pale orange. They have often developed the large-eyed, yellowish-orange appearance typical of these nocturnal hunters and individuals are often attracted to light. This key to British species is a draft:

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources-rx/files/keys-for-nocturnal-workshop-reduced-109651.pdf

Subfamily Pimplinae. The insects in this subfamily are all elongate and range from robust, heavily-sculptured ichneumons to slender, smooth-bodied ones. Many of them have the 'normal' parasitoid life-cycle (eggs laid in or on the host larvae, feeding on the hosts' fat bodies until they are full-grown and then killing and consuming the hosts) but there are also some variations within this subfamily. Some species search in leaf litter for prepupae - fully-grown larvae which are preparing to pupate -which they paralyse before lay one or more eggs on each. The ichneumon grubs feed on this store of meat, acting more like predators than parasitoids. Others attack very dangerous hosts - they parasitise spiders! Some are solitary ectoparasitoids and a grub can be seen wrapped around the cehalothorax of an immature spider with its mouthparts embedded in the host, sucking nutriment from it. Others lay their eggs in spider egg-cocoons, which involves taking on the mother spiders first. Their grubs eat the eggs and developing spiderlings, and often the paralysed female as well.

Pimplines can be identified by reference to:

·      Fitton, M.G., Shaw, M.R. & Gauld, I.D. (1988) Pimpline Ichneumon-flies. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol 7, Part 1.

·      Shaw, M.R. (2006) Notes on British Pimplinae and Poemeniinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), with additions to the British List. British Journal of Entomology & Natural History 19, p217-38

·      Shaw, M. R., Jennings, M. T., Quicke, D. L. J. (2011) The identity of Scambus planatus (Hartig, 1838) and Scambus ventricosus (Tschek, 1871) as seasonal forms of Scambus calobatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) in Europe (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae, Ephialtini) Journal of Hymenoptera Research 23: 55–64.

Information on Pimpline ichneumons in Yorkshire is:

·      Ely, W.A. (1987) The Pimplinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) of Askham Bog. YNU Bulletin 8, p23-5

·      Ely, W.A. (1992) The Ichneumons of South Yorkshire. 1. Pimplinae. Sorby Record 28, p7-13

·      Ely, W.A. (2000) Ichneumons of the Sorby Area: Update on Pimplinae. Sorby Record p44-48

·      Mayhew, P.J., Dytham, C., Shaw, M.R. & Fraser, S.E.M. (2009) Collections of ichneumonid wasps (subfamilies Diacritinae, Diplazontinae, Pimplinae and Poemeniinae) from woodlands near York and their implications for conservation planning. Naturalist 134, p 3-24

Until recently the subfamily Poeminiinae was included within the Pimplinae. Identification and Yorkshire occurrences are included in the references above.

Until recently the subfamily Rhyssinae was included within the Pimplinae. Identification and Yorkshire occurrences are included in the references above.

Until recently the subfamily Diacritinae was included within the Pimplinae. Identification and Yorkshire occurrences are included in the references above.

The single British species has been found in Yorkshire.

The subfamily Tryphoninae are ectoparasitoids whose eggs are anchored into the skin of the host larvae but do not hatch until those larvae pupate, and the ichneumon grubs feed on the developing pupae. The larvae of sawflies and moths are attacked.

Most recent research on this subfamily has been carried out in Russia, led by D.R.Kasparyan and there is little other identification literature in English:

·      Fitton, M.G. (1978) A Review of the British Species of Tryphon Fallen. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 110, p153-71

·      Fitton, M.G. & Ficken, L (1990) British ichneumon-flies of the tribe Oedomopsini (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). The Entomologist 109 (4), p200-214.

·         Horstmann, K. (2006) Revisionen von Schlupfwespen-Arten IX (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Mitteilungender Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 95, 75-86. *

·      Kasparyan, D. R. 1973 [Fauna of the USSR Hymenoptera Vol.III Number 1. Ichneumonidae (Subfamily Tryphoninae) Tribe Tryphonini.] Leningrad: Nauka Publishers [in Russian, English translation published by Amerind Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 1981

·         Kasparyan, D. R. (1977) [A review of the Ichneumon flies of the genus Eclytus Holmgren (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).] Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 56, 156-170;[in Russian, English translation in Entomological Review 56, 116-129].

·         Kasparyan, D. R. & Shaw, M. R. (2008) British and European Phytodietus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae) in the National Museums of Scotland, with a key to European species of the subgenus Neuchorus Uchida and descriptions of three new species. Entomologist’s Gazette 59, 184-198.

·      Kerrich, G.J. (1952) A Review, and a Revision in Greater Part, of the Cteniscini of the Old World. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology II, 6

Ichneumons in the subfamily Adelognathinae are small insects with short antennae with only 14 or 15 segments. They are ectoparasitoids of sawfly larvae. The most recent British publication has been superceded by research in Russia:

·      Fitton, M.G., Gauld, I.D. & Shaw, M.R. (1982) The taxonomy and biology of the British Adelognathinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Journal of Natural History 16, 275-83.

·         Kasparyan, D. R. (1990) [Fauna of USSR. Insecta Hymenoptera. Vol. III (2). Ichneumonidae. Subfamily Tryphoninae: Tribe Exenterini. Subfamily Adelognathinae.] Leningrad: Nauka Publishers [in Russian] 342pp.

The subfamily Xoridinae contains insects which are ectoparasitoids of the larvae of wood-boring beetles. They can be identified by reference to:

·         Gauld, I.D. & Fitton, M.G. (1981) Keys to the British Xoridine parasitoids of wood-boring beetles (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Entomologist's Gazette 32, 259-67

The subfamily Agriotypinae is parasitic on caddis-fly larvae. The single British species has been found in Yorkshire and is described in:

·         Perkins, J.F.(1960) Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonidae, subfamilies Ichneumoninae II, Alomyinae, Agriotypinae and Lycorininae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol VII, 2 (aii)

The subfamily Cryptinae is one of the larger groups and much of the recent research has been carried out in Germany and Scandinavia. The following key (to the world fauna!) allows us to sort specimens into their tribes, subtribes and genera. It has been the stimulus to much recent research and large parts of the generic keys have been replaced by European ones:

·         Townes, H. K. (1969) The genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 2. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 12, 1-537.

·         Horstmann, K. (1976) Nachträge zu Revisionen der europäischen Arten der Dichrogaster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Phygadeuontinae). *

·         Horstmann, K. (1978) Revision der gattungen der Mastrina Townes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Hemitelinae). Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemenischaft Österreichischer Entomologen 30, 65-70. *

·         Horstmann, K. (1980) Revision der europäischen Arten der Gattung Aclastus Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 50,133-158.

·         Horstmann, K. (1986) Die westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattung Gelis Thunberg, 1827, mit macropteren oder brachypteren Weibchen (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Entomofauna 7, 389-424. *

·         Horstmann, K. (1991) Revisionen einiger Gattungen und Arten der Phygadeuontini (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae). Entomofauna 12  *

·      Horstmann, K. (1993) Nachträge zu Revisionen der Gattungen Aclastus Förster, Ceratophygadeuon Viereck, Chirotica Förster und Gelis Thunberg (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae). Nachrichtenblattder Bayerischen Entomologen 42, 7-15.

·      Horstmann, K. (1993) Revision der brachypteren Weibchen der wespaläarktischen Cryptinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Entomofauna 14, 85-148. *

·      Horstmann, K. (1993) Die europäischen Arten von Gnotus Förster und Uchidella Townes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae).  Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österreichischer Entomologen 45, 35-45. *

·         Horstmann, K. (1995) Die europäischen Arten von Arotrephes Townes, 1970 und Pleurogyrus Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae). Entomofauna 16, 261-275.

·         Horstmann, K. (1998) Revisionen einiger Gattungen und Arten der Phygadeuontini II (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae). Entomofauna 19, 433-460. *

·         Horstmann, K. (2000) Die westpaläarktischen Arten von Ethelurgus Förster, 1869 und Rhembobius Förster, 1869 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae). Entomofauna 21, 65-76. *

·         Horstmann, K. (2001) Revision der bisher zu Iselix Förster gestellten westpaläarktischen Arten von Phygadeuon Gravenhorst (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae). Spixiana 24, 207-229. *

·         Horstmann, K. (2009) Revision der europäischen Arten von Isadelphus Förster, 1869 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae). Entomofauna 30, 473-492. *

·         Horstmann, K. (2010) Revision der europäischen Arten von Stibeutes Förster, 1850 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae). Entomofauna 31, 229-264. *

·      Jussila, R. (1979) A revision of the genus Atractodes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in the Western Palaearctic region. Acta Entomologica Fennica 34, 1-44.

·      Jussila, R. (1983) Addition to the revision of the genus Atractodes (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of the Western Palearctic region I. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 20, 201-204.

·      Jussila, R. (1987) Revision of the genus Stilpnus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) of the western Palaearctic Region. Annales Entomologici Fennici 53, 1-16.

·      Jussila, R. (1994) Additions to the revision of the genus Atractodes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) of the Western Palaearctic region. II. Entomologica Fennica 5: 129-134.

·      Jussila, R. (1999) Additions to the revisions of the genus Stilpnus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) of the Palaearctic Region. I. Entomologica Fennica 10, 107-112.

·      Jussila, R. (2001) Additions to the revision of the genus Atractodes (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of the Palaearctic Region. III. Entomologica Fennica 12, 193-216.

·         Jussila, R. & Sääksjärvi, I. E. () Revision of the genus Mesoleptus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of the western Palaearctic Region.

·      Sawoniewicz, J. (1980) Revision of European species of the genus Bathythrix Foerster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Annales Zoologici 35, 1-47.

·      Sawoniewicz, J. (1985) Revision of European species of the subtribe Endaseina (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), I. Annales Zoologici 39, 131-145.

·         Sawoniewicz, J. & Luhman, J. C. (1992) Revision of European species of the subtribe Endaseina, III genus: Endasys Foerster, 1868. Entomofauna 13, 1-94.

·         Schwarz, M. (1995) Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis Thunberg mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis Schmiedeknecht (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 1. Linzer Biologische Beiträge 27, 5-105.

·         Schwarz, M. (1998) Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis Thunberg mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis Schmiedeknecht (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 2. Linzer Biologische Beiträge 30, 629-704.

·         Schwarz, M. & Shaw, M. R. (2000) Western Palaearctic Cryptinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in the National Museums of Scotland, with nomenclatural changes, taxonomic notes, rearing records and special reference to the British checklist. Part 3. Tribe Phygadeuontini, subtribes Chiroticina, Acrolytina, Hemitelina and Gelina (excluding Gelis), with descriptions of new species. Entomologist's Gazette 51, 147-186.

The subfamily Stilbopinae is very small and British spec ies can be recognized by reference to:

·      Fitton, M.G. (1984) A Review of the British Collyrinae, Eucerotinae, Stilbopinae and Neorhacodinae. Entomologist’s Gazette 35, p185-95

The subfamily Banchinae consists of medium-sized ichneumons. Much of the recent work has ben carried out in France and Russia but a Royal Entomological Society handbook dealing with the British fauna is in preparation.

They can be identified by reference to:

·      Aubert, J.F. (1978) Les ichneumonides ouest-palearctiques et leurs hȏtes 2. Banchinae et Suppl. aux Pimplinae. Laboratoire d'Evolution des Etres Organises, Paris & EDIFAT-OPIDA, Echauffour. *

·      Fitton, M.G. (1985) The ichneumon-fly genus Banchus (Hymenoptera) in the old world. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 51, 1-60

The subfamily Ctenopelmatinae has been very little studied in Yorkshire recently. Only the nocturnal species are readily identifiable (see link at the top of this page).

·         Idar, M. (1981) Revision of the European species of the genus Hadrodactylus Förster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Part 2. Entomologica Scandinavica 12, 231-239.

·         Idar, M. (1983) Revision of European Synomelix Förster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) with description of S. faciator n. sp. Entomologica Scandinavica 14, 168-172.

·         Kasparyan, D. R. (2000) [Palaearctic ichneumonid wasps of the genus Mesoleius (s. str.) Holmgren (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae): I.] Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 79, 150-179.[in Russian, English translation in Entomological Review 80, 144-168].

·         Kasparyan, D. R. (2003) [Palaearctic species of the ichneumonid-wasp genus Campodorus Foerster (s.str.) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) with pectinate claws]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 82, 758-766. [in Russian, English translation in Entomological Review 83, 584-591].

·         Kasparyan, D. R. (2004) [A review of Palaearctic species of tribe Ctenopelmatini (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). The genera Ctenopelma Holmgren and Homaspis Foerster]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 83, 437-467. [in Russian, English translation in Entomological Review 84, 332-357].

·         Kasparyan, D. R. & Shaw, M. R. (2003) A preliminary key to the European species of the genus Saotis Förster,1 869, with a list of British species (Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae: Mesoleiini). Zoosystematica Rossica 11, 351-355.

·         Kasparyan, D. R. & Shaw, M. R. (2009) A new species of Hadrodactylus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae, Euryproctini) from Britain and mainland Europe, with a review of material of the genus in the National Museums of Scotland. Entomologist's Gazette 60, 251-258.

The single species in the Subfamily Lycorininae has been found in Yorkshire and is described in:

·      Perkins, J.F.(1960) Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonidae, subfamilies Ichneumoninae II, Alomyinae, Agriotypinae and Lycorininae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol VII, 2 (aii)

Much of the recent research into the subfamily Campopleginae has been carried out in Germany, following on from the key to world genera:

·      Townes, H.T. (1969): Genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 3 (Lycorininae, Banchinae, Scolobatinae, Porizontinae (=Campopleginae)). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 13: 1-307.

·      Horstmann, K. (1969) Typenrevision der europäischen Arten der Gattung Diadegma Foerster (syn. Angitia Holmgren (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Beiträge zur Entomologie, Berlin 19, 413-72. *

·      Horstmann, K. (1971) Revision der europäischen Arten der Gattung Lathrostizus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Essays of the German Entomological Society 30, 8-12, 16-18. *

·      Horstmann, K. (1973) Nachtrag zur Revision der europäischen Diadegma-Arten (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Beiträge zur Entomologie, Berlin 23, 131-50. *

·         Horstmann, K. (1974) Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Schlupfwespen-Gattungen Bathyplectes und Biolysia (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Entomologica Germanica 1, 58-81. *

·         Horstmann, K. (19787) Bemerkungen zur Systematik einiger Gattungender Campopleginae II (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 67,65-83. *

·         Horstmann, K. (1980) Neue westpaläarktische Campopleginen-Arten (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 69, 117-132.

·         Horstmann, K. (1987) Die europäischen Arten der Gattungen Echthronomas Förster und Eriborus Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Nachrichtenblatt der Bayerischen Entomologen 36, 57-67.

·         Horstmann, K. (1994) Nachtrag zur Revision der wespaläarktischen Nemeritis-Arten (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 84, 79-90.

·         Horstmann, K. (2009) Revision of the western Palearctic species of Dusona Cameron (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae). Spixiana 32,1, 45-110.

·         Shaw, M.R & Horstmann, K. (1997) An Analysis of Host Range in the Diadegma nanus group of Parasitoids in Western Europe, with a Key to Species (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 6, 2, 273-96.

·         Sanborne, M. (1984) A revision of the world species of Sinophorus (Ichneumonidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 38, 1-403.

·         Šedivý, J. (2004) European species the genus Phobocampe Förster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Acta Universitatis Carolinae Biologica 48, 203-235.

The subfamily Cremastinae is a very small group of insects which superficially resemble the previous subfamily. They can be identified by reference to:

·      Fitton, M. G. & Gauld, I. D. (1980) A review of the British Cremastinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), with keys to the species. Entomologist's Gazette 31, 63-71.

The subfamily Tersilochinae contains small insects which are parasitoids of beetles. It now includes the very small and compact insects which were previously considered to be the separate subfamily Phrudinae. The European fauna can be identified through:

·      Horstmann, K. (1971) Revision der europaischen Tersilochinen 1 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Verfentlichungen der Zoologischen Staatsammlung (Munchen) 15, 47-138. *

·      Horstmann, K. (1981) Revision der europaischen Tersilochinen II (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Spixiana Supplement 4 (1980), 1-76. *

·         Shaw, M. R. (1991) Phrudus badensis Hilpert (Hym., Ichneumonidae) new to Britain. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 127, 157-158.

·      Vikberg, V. & Koponen, M. (2000) On the taxonomy of Seleucus Holmgren and the European species of Phrudinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Entomologica Fennica 11(4), 195-228

The subfamily Ophioninae is that of the archetypal 'yellow ichneumon', though several others contain similarly-coloured species. They can be identified by reference to:

·      Brock, J. P. (1982) A systematic study of the genus Ophion in Britain (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 125, 57-97.

(Also see link to nocturnal ichneumonoids at the top of this page)

Ichneumons of the subfamily Mesochorinae are typified by a diamond-shaped areolet in the forewing, a long ovipositor in the female and long, rod-like claspers in the male. The following literature will sort out the genera and some species:

·      Lawton, F.D. (1981) An introduction to the Mesochorinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Proc Trans Br. Ent Nat Soc. 14, 93-97

·      Fitton, M. G. (1985) The British species of Cidaphus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Entomologist's Gazette 36, 293-297

The subfamily Metopiinae is characterised by a smooth, convex face and very strongly developed limbs. The latest literature on them is French:

·         Aeschlimann, J.-P. (1973) Revision des espêces Ouest-Paléarctiques du genre Trieces (Hym. Ichneumonidae). Annales de la Societé Entomologique de France (N.S.) 9, 4, 975-87.

·         Aeschlimann, J.-P. (1975) Revision des espêces Ouest-Paléarctiques du genre Chorinaeus Holmgren (Hymenoptera : Ichneumonidae). Annales de la Societé Entomologique de France (N.S.) 11, 4, 723-42.

·         Aeschlimann, J.-P. (1981) Une addition et deux corrections au genre Chorinaeus Holmgren (Hymenoptera : Ichneumonidae). Annales de la Societé Entomologique de France (N.S.) 17, 1, 3-6.

·         Aeschlimann, J.-P. (1983) Note sur les Metopiines Ouest-Paléarctiques, avec description de deux espêces nouvelles (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Annales de la Societé Entomologique de France (N.S.) 19, 1, 3-6.

·         Aeschlimann, J.-P. (1989) Revision des espêces Ouest-Paléarctiques du genre Hypsicera Latreille (Hymenoptera : Ichneumonidae). Annales de la Societé Entomologique de France (N.S.) 25, 1, 33-39.

·         Broad, G.R. & Shaw, M.R. (2005) The species of four genera of Metopiinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in Britain, with new host records and descriptions of four new species. Journal of Natural History 39, 2389-2407.

The subfamily Cylloceriinae is one of those separated out from the Oxytorinae, which has been used to include quite a diverse assemblage of insects. These ichneumons are small and slender.

·         Humala, A.E. (2002) [A Review of Parasitic Wasps of the Genera Cylloceria Schiodte, 1838 and Allomacrus Forster, 1868 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) of the Fauna of Russia.] Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 81, 370-385.[in Russian, English translation in 2003, Entomological Review 82, 301-313]

·         Rossem, G. van (1990) Key to the genera of the Palaearctic Oxytorine, with descriptions of three new genera (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 63, 23, 309-20.

The subfamily Anomaloninae contains very elongate icgneumons. The females use their long, flexible gaster to reach their hosts, which are leaf-rolling moth caterpillars. They can be identified by reference to:

·      Gauld, I.D. (1977) Ichneumonidae Orthopematinae & Anomaloninae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol 7, Part 2(b)

The subfamily Oxytorinae has been used to accommodate a range of ichneumons that are not really very closely related. Almost all of them have been transferred to new subfamilies or moved to the Orthocentrinae. Only Oxytorus itself is left.

·         Kerrich, G. J. (1939) Systematic Notes on the Oxytorina (Hym., Ichneumonidae, Mesoeptini Auctt.).  Opuscula Entomologica 4, 126-28.

·         Rossem, G. van (1990) Key to the genera of the Palaearctic Oxytorine, with descriptions of three new genera (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 63, 23, 309-20.

The subfamily Microleptinae is one of those previously included in the Oxytorinae and contains the single genus Microleptes.

·         Rossem, G. van (1988) A revision of Palaearctic Oxytorine Genera. PartVII (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Tijdschriftvoor Entomologie 131, 111.

·         Rossem, G. van (1990) Key to the genera of the Palaearctic Oxytorine, with descriptions of three new genera (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 63, 23, 309-20.

Much of the recent research on the subfamily Orthocentrinae has been in France and there is no current British literature. Most of the genera previously included in the Oxytorinae has been transferred to this subfamily.

·         Aubert, J.-F. (1978) Révision préliminaire des ichneumonides Orthocentrinae Européennes (Hym. Ichneumonidae). Revista Espaniola de Entomologïa LII, 7-28.

·         Aubert, J.-F. (1981) Révision des ichneumonides Stenomacrus senso lato. Mitt. Münch. Ent. Ges. 71, 139-59.

·         Broad, G.R. (2010) Status of Batakomacrus Kolarov (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae), with new generic combinations and description of a new species. Zootaxa 2394, 51-68.

·         Horstmann, K. (1994) Die europäischen Arten von Picrostigeus Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Orthocentrinae). Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemenischaft Österreichischer Entomologen 46, 111-120. *

·         Humala, A. E. (2004) Review of the Palaearctic species of the genus Eusteryx Förster, 1868 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society 75, 1, 64-72.

·         Rossem, G. van (1980) A revision of some Western Palaearctic Oxytorine Genera. Part II (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Tijdschriftvoor Entomologie 131, 103-112.Rossem, G. van (1985) A revision of Palaearctic Oxytorine Genera. PartV (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Spixiana 8, 2, 145-52.

·         Rossem, G. van (1987) A revision of Palaearctic Oxytorine Genera. Part VI (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Tijdschriftvoor Entomologie 130, 49-108.

·         Rossem, G. van (1988) A revision of Palaearctic Oxytorine Genera. Part VII (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Tijdschriftvoor Entomologie 131, 103-112.

·         Rossem, G. van (1990) Key to the genera of the Palaearctic Oxytorine, with descriptions of three new genera (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 63, 23, 309-20.

·         Rossem, G. van (1991) New Oxytorinae from Siberia, with revised keys to Plectiscidea Viereck and Eusterinx Förster s.l. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Zool. Med. Leiden 63, 3, 25-38.

The tiny subfamily Orthopelmatinae parasitises the gall wasp that causes Robin's Pincushion galls on rose leaves. They can be identified by reference to:

·      Gauld, I.D. (1977) Ichneumonidae Orthopematinae & Anomaloninae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol 7, Part 2(b)

The two British species in the subfamily Collyriinae are parasitoids of stem-mining sawflies. The British species can be recognized by reference to:

·      Fitton, M.G. (1984) A Review of the British Collyrinae, Eucerotinae, Stilbopinae and Neorhacodinae. Entomologist’s Gazette 35, p185-95

Both British species have been found in Yorkshire:

·      Ely, W.A. (2001) The Collyrinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) of Yorkshire. Naturalist 126, p185-7

The subfamily Diplazontinae parastises hoverfly larvae and is characterised by having the upper mandible of the adult divided into two teeth. The following will allow most of them to be identified but a new key is in preparation:

·      Beirne, B.P. (1941) British species of Diplazontini (Bassini auctt.) with a study of the genital and postabdominal segments of the male (Hym.: Ichneum.). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 91 (13).

·      Fitton, M. G. & Rotheray, G. E. (1982) A key to the European genera of diplazontine ichneumon-flies, with notes on the British fauna. Systematic Entomology 7, 311-320.

·      Fitton, M. G. & Boston, M. (1988) The British species of Phthorima (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Entomologist's Gazette 39, 165-170.

·         Rotheray, G. E. (1990) A new species of Bioblapsis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Scotland parasitising a mycophagous hoverfly, Cheilosa longula (Diptera: Syrphidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 21, 277-280.

·         Thirion, C. (1987) Diplazon scutatorius Teunissen, 1943 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) new to Britain. Entomologist's Gazette 38, 55-56.

Information on Diplozontine ichneumons in Yorkshire is:

·      Mayhew, P.J., Dytham, C., Shaw, M.R. & Fraser, S.E.M. (2009) Collections of ichneumonid wasps (subfamilies Diacritinae, Diplazontinae, Pimplinae and Poemeniinae) from woodlands near York and their implications for conservation planning. Naturalist 134, p 3-24

The Ichneumoninae is a large subfamily of insects with a 5-sided areolet in each wing and a distinctly petiolate gaster (the apparent 'abdomen'). Identication is by the following though, as much research has been carried out in Europe over the last half century, the comments about additional species are particularly relevant:

·      Perkins, J.F.(1959) Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonidae, key to subfamilies and Ichneumoninae - I. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol VII, 2 (ai)

·      Perkins, J.F.(1960) Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonidae, subfamilies Ichneumoninae II, Alomyinae, Agriotypinae and Lycorininae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol VII, 2 (aii)

·         Hilpert, H. (1992) Zur Systematik der Gattung Ichneumon Linnaeus in der Westpalaearktis (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ichneumoninae). Entomofauna, Supplement 6, 1-389. *

·         Riedel, M. (2008) Revision der westpaläarktischen Platylabini 1. Die Gattung Platylabus Wesmael, 1845 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ichneumoninae). Spixiana 31, 105-172.

·          Riedel, M. (2012) Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattung Coelichneumon Thomson (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae) Linzer biol. Beitr. 44/2, 1477-1611 .

·         Selfa, J. and Diller, E. (1994) Illustrated key to the Western Palearctic genera of Phaeogenini (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ichneumoninae). Entomofauna 15: 237-251.

The two British species of Alomyinae can be identified by reference to:

·      Perkins, J.F.(1960) Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonidae, subfamilies Ichneumoninae II, Alomyinae, Agriotypinae and Lycorininae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol VII, 2 (aii)

 

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